Connecting European Neuroscience

EJN Table of Content

EJN is the official scientific journal of FENS. Sign-in to the website as a FENS member and enjoy full, free and easy access to all published articles in EJN.

  • Issue Cover

    1. Issue Cover (December 2017) (page i)

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13592

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      Cover image by Dr. Natalie Doig (MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Oxford). The cover image is of a frontal section of mouse brain showing many regions of the basal ganglia. The section was triple‐immunostained to reveal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; cyan), parvalbumin (PV; green) and choline acetyltransferase (magenta).

  • EDITORIAL

    1. Transparent review at the European Journal of Neuroscience: experiences one year on (page 2647)

      J. Paul Bolam and John J. Foxe

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13762

  • REVIEW

    1. Corticospinal responses following strength training: a systematic review and meta‐analysis (pages 2648–2661)

      Dawson J. Kidgell, Daniel R. Bonanno, Ashlyn K. Frazer, Glyn Howatson and Alan J. Pearce

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13710

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      It is now well established the adaptations within the nervous system contribute to strength development during the early phases of strength training; however, the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. This study establishes that the corticospinal response to strength training is characterised by reduced intracortical inhibition and cortical silent period duration, rather than increased corticospinal excitability, which suggest strength training targets intracortical inhibitory neurons.

  • NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus interna influence firing of tonically active neurons in the primate striatum through different mechanisms (pages 2662–2673)

      Asuka Nakajima, Yasushi Shimo, Takanori Uka and Nobutaka Hattori

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13726

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      We found that high‐frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus interna (GPi) suppressed striatal interneuron activity. The mechanisms underlying this suppression differ between STN stimulation and GPi stimulation—dopamine‐dependent mechanism for the former and GABA‐dependent mechanism for the latter. These results may shed light on the therapeutic mechanisms of deep brain stimulation in human patients.

    2. Increasing motor cortex plasticity with spaced paired associative stimulation at different intervals in older adults (pages 2674–2683)

      Simranjit K. Sidhu, Maryam Pourmajidian, George M. Opie and John G. Semmler

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13729

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      We examined the time‐dependant ability of priming paired associated stimulation (PAS) to modulate subsequent test PAS within primary motor cortex of older adults. The effects of priming PAS on test PAS potentiation were significantly greater for a 30‐min inter‐PAS inter‐valuing depressive priming PAS. We suggest that priming with depressive PAS using a longer delay may improve the efficacy of PAS in augmenting motor performance and learning in the elderly.

    3. Information processing from the motor cortices to the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus and their somatotopic organizations revealed electrophysiologically in monkeys (pages 2684–2701)

      Hirokazu Iwamuro, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Nobuhito Saito and Atsushi Nambu

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13738

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      We examined the neuronal responses in the basal ganglia to stimulation of the primary motor cortex (MI) and supplementary motor area (SMA) in awake macaque monkeys. We drew somatotopic maps in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus based on the responses to the stimulation of motor cortices representing different body parts. Our results suggest that the somatotopically organized inputs from motor cortices are well preserved in the basal ganglia with partial convergence.

    4. Comparison of visual receptive fields in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral intraparietal area in macaques (pages 2702–2712)

      Pooja Viswanathan and Andreas Nieder

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13740

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      We mapped the visual receptive fields of a large number of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral intraparietal area as monkeys passively fixated the centre of the screen. As we simultaneously recorded both areas, neurons responded to the location of a moving bar at various parts of the screen. Average RF map of all responsive neurons indicates a strong contralateral bias in dlPFC and a strong foveal bias in VIP neurons.

    5. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the rat spinal cord under inflammatory pain conditions (pages 2713–2728)

      Chien Cheng Liu, Jiin Tsuey Cheng, Tien Yui Li and Ping Heng Tan

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13745

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      This study examined the expression profiles of microRNAs(miRNA) and mRNAs in the rat spinal cord during complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)‐induced inflammatory pain. An integrated analysis revealed 54 mRNA targets with an inverse correlation to the expression patterns of three miRNAs in the CFA 5d group. Seventy‐five targets were inversely correlated to six miRNAs in the CFA 14d group. We also investigated an interaction pair in CFA 5d group, miR‐124‐3p and IL6R, and the results showed that miR‐124‐3p could attenuate inflammatory pain and decrease IL6R expression in the spinal cord.

  • MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Sustained cell body reactivity and loss of NeuN in a subset of axotomized bulbospinal neurons after a chronic high cervical spinal cord injury (pages 2729–2745)

      Fannie Darlot, Stéphane Vinit, Valéry Matarazzo and Anne Kastner

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13737

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      After a C2 hemisection, a sub‐population of axotomized bulbospinal neurons exhibits a long‐lasting growth‐reactive state as indicated by the co‐expression of c‐Jun, ATF‐3, NOS and HSP27 in these cells. This neuronal sub‐population is characterized by a persistent downregulation of the neuronal marker NeuN.

    2. Differential actions of AMP kinase on ATP‐sensitive K+ currents in ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra zona compacta neurons (pages 2746–2753)

      Yan‐Na Wu, Ke‐Zhong Shen and Steven W. Johnson

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13756

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      Rat midbrain slices were superfused with the ATP‐sensitive K+ (K‐ATP) opener diazoxide every 30 min while recording from principal neurons in the substantia nigra zona compacta (SNC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) using whole‐cell patch pipettes. Although the AMP kinase activator A769662 augmented diazoxide‐induced currents in both cell types, currents were larger in SNC neurons. K‐ATP channels and their regulation by AMP kinase may play important roles in regulating SNC and VTA dopamine neuron physiology.

    3. MAP6 interacts with Tctex1 and Cav2.2/N‐type calcium channels to regulate calcium signalling in neurons (pages 2754–2767)

      Jacques Brocard, Fabrice Dufour, Sylvie Gory‐Fauré, Christophe Arnoult, Christophe Bosc, Eric Denarier, Leticia Peris, Yasmina Saoudi, Michel De Waard and Annie Andrieux

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13766

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      In the present study, we demonstrate that MAP6 proteins interact with Tctex1 and Cav2.2/N‐type calcium channel to regulate calcium channels activity in hippocampal neurons. While MAP6‐E or its N‐terminal mutant form (MAP6‐EΔ1) seem sufficient to address Cav2.2 channels properly, mutating the RRRIR motif to AAAIA in addition to deleting its microtubule‐binding motif Mn3 seem to prevent this activity (MAP6‐E ΔMn3AAAIA and MAP6‐EΔ1ΔMn3AAAIA mutants).

  • BEHAVIOURAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. ‘Hot’ vs. ‘cold’ behavioural‐cognitive styles: motivational‐dopaminergic vs. cognitive‐cholinergic processing of a Pavlovian cocaine cue in sign‐ and goal‐tracking rats (pages 2768–2781)

      Kyle K. Pitchers, Louisa F. Kane, Youngsoo Kim, Terry E. Robinson and Martin Sarter

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13741

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      We investigated the activity of two major prefrontal neuromodulatory input systems, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), in response to a Pavlovian cue that was previously paired with cocaine administration in STs and GTs. Following an abstinence period and in the absence of cocaine, cue presentations (C1–C4) in STs resulted in increases in extracellular DA, but not ACh, levels (left). In contrast, cue presentations in GTs increased ACh, but not DA, levels (NC, no‐cue).

    2. Chronic BMY7378 treatment alters behavioral circadian rhythms (pages 2782–2790)

      Jhenkruthi Vijaya Shankara, Angélique Orr, Richelle Mychasiuk and Michael C. Antle

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13744

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      Animals were treated chronically for 4 weeks with the 5‐HT1A mixed agonist/antagonist BMY7378 using subcutaneous osmotic mini pumps. Activity levels were attenuated, the duration of the active phase was expanded and the phase angle of entrainment was advanced. Phase shifts to late‐night light pulses and daytime 8‐OH‐DPAT injections were attenuated. Gene expression for the 5‐HT1A receptor was upregulated in the hypothalamus and downregulated in the brainstem.

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